Melanoma of the Maxillary Anterior Gingiva

Mark Eugene Peacock, Ilanit Stern, Cynthia S Ditslear, Mark R Stevens, Rafik A Abdelsayed

Abstract


Intraoral melanomas are extremely rare and exhibit a poor prognosis. These lesions have the tendency to metastasize, even more so than melanomas of the skin. Most cases (> 80%) occur on keratinized tissue of the maxilla, palate and gingiva. The clinical presentation can be diverse, demonstrating multiple shapes, sizes, and coloration patterns. Early on, smaller melanomas are usually asymptomatic, but can become painful if they expand. Clinicians should be suspect of changing pigmentations, even though a significant percentage of oral mucosal melanomas are amelanotic. This case report is of an oral melanoma, primary site being the anterior maxilla. The patient did not seek care until the lesion was grossly enlarged and became symptomatic. The primary treatment remains wide surgical excision. Early detection and diagnosis of this malignancy is vital in order to improve the prognosis of these patients.


Keywords


Amelanotic; Gingiva; Melanoma; Melanocytes; Metastasis; Oral; Pigmentations.

Full Text:

PDF HTML XML

References


Hicks MJ, Flaitz CM. Oral mucosal melanoma: epidemiology and pathobiology. Oral Oncol 2000;36:152-69.

Mhapuskar A, Umarji H, Jain N, Behere R, Aditya A. Intra-oral malignant melanoma – a case report and review of the literature. NZ Dent J 2012;108(3):102-4.

Manganaro AM, Hammond HL, Dalton MJ, Williams TP. Oral melanoma: case reports and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1995;80(6):670-6.

Tucci R, Aburad De Carvalhosa A, Anunciacão G, Daumas Nunes F, Dos Santos Pinto D Jr. Late diagnosis of a primary oral malignant melanoma: a case report. Minerva Stomatol 2010;59(1-2):55-9.

Bhullar RPK, Bhullar A, Vanaki SS, Puranik RS, Sudhakara M, Kamat MS. Primary melanoma of oral mucosa: a case report and review of the literature. Dent Res J 2012;9(3):353-6.

Ulusal BG, Karatas O, Yildiz AC, Oztan Y. Primary malignant melanoma of the maxillary gingiva. Dermatol Surg 2003;29(3):304-7.

Thomas PS, Babu GS, Anusha RL, Shetty S. Oral malignant melanoma – an unusual presentation. Gerodontology 2012;29:e1241-3.

Greene GW, Haynes JW, Dozier M, Blumberg JM, Bernier JL. Primary malignant melanoma of the oral mucosa. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1953;6:1435-43.

Barker BF, Carpenter WM, Daniels TE, Kahn MA, Leider AS, Lozada-Nur F, et al. Oral mucosal melanomas: the WESTOP Banff workshop proceedings. Western Society of Teachers of Oral Pathology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997;83:672-9.

Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE. Soft tissue tumors. In: Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Bouquot JE, eds. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 3rd ed. St Louis: WB Saunders; 2009. 507-70 p.

Alawi F. Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa. In: Greenberg MS, Glick M, Ship JA, eds. Burket’s Oral Medicine. 11th ed. Hamilton: BC Decker Inc; 2008. 107-28 p.

Ohashi K, Kasugu T, Tanaka N, Enomoto S, Horiuchi J, Okada N. Malignant melanomas of the oral cavity: heterogeneity of pathological and clinical features. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 1992;420:43-50.

Hashemi Pour MS. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: a review of literature. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:47-51.

Wang X, Wu HM, Ren GX, Tang J, Guo W. Primary oral mucosal melanoma: advocate a wait-and-see policy in the clinically NO patient. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012;70:1192-8.

Aguas SC, Quarracino MC, Lence AN, Tizeira HEL. Primary melanoma of the oral cavity. Ten cases and review of 177 cases from literature. Med Oral Pathol Oral Cir Bucal 2009;6:265-71.

Chan RC, Chan JY, Wei WI. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: 32-year experience in a tertiary referral hospital. Laryngoscope 2012;122:2749-53.

McLaughlin CC, Wu XC, Jemal A, Martin HJ, Roche LM, Chen VW. Incidence of noncutaneous melanomas in the U.S. Cancer 2005;103:1000-7.

Tanaka N, Amagasa T, Iwaki H, Shioda S, Takeda M, Ohashi K, Reck SF. Oral malignant melanoma in Japan. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994;78:81-90.

Mihajlovic M, Vlajkovic S, Jovanovic P, Stefanovic V. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2012;5:739-53.

Bansal S, Desai RS, Shirsat P. Amelanotic melanoma of the oral cavity: a case report and review of literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2012;3:31-6.

Ardekian L, Rosen DJ, Peled M, Rachmiel A, Machtei EE, el Naaj IA, Laufer D. Primary gingival malignant melanoma. Report of 3 cases. J Periodontol 2000;71:117-20.

Perrotti V, Piattelli A, Rubini C, Fioroni M, Petrone G. Malignant melanoma of the maxillary gingiva: a case report. J Periodontol 2004;75:1724-7.

Bonan PR, Laranjeira AL, Martelli-Júnior H, Guimarães AL, Vargas PA, Coletta RD. Synchronous metastatic melanoma presenting as gingival and facial swelling: a case report and review of the literature. J Periodontol 2008;79:2371-7.

Ahmadi-Motamayel F, Falsafi P, Baghaei F. Report of a rare and aggressive case of oral malignant melanoma. Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013;17:47-51.

Palanivelu S, Jayanthi P, Rao UK, Joshua E, Ranganathan K. Rapidly enlarging mass following dental extraction. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2011;15:223-7.

Meleti M, Leemans CR, Mooi WJ, Vescovi P, van der Waal I. Oral malignant melanoma: a review of the literature. Oral Oncol 2007;43:116-21.

Meleti M, Vescovi P, Mooi WJ, van der Waal I. Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa and perioral tissues: a flow-chart for the diagnosis and some recommendations for the management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008;105:606-16.

Notani K, Shindoh M, Yamazaki Y, Nakamura H, Watanabe M, Kogoh T, Ferguson MM, Fukuda H. Amelanotic malignant melanomas of the oral mucosa. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;40:195-200.

Axell T, Hedin CA. Epidemiologic study of excessive oral melanin pigmentation with special reference to the influence of tobacco habits. Scan J Dent Res 1982;90:434-42.

Clark WH Jr, From L, Bernardino EA, Mihm MC. The histogenesis and biologic behavior of primary human malignant melanomas of the skin. Cancer Res 1969;29:705-27.

Breslow A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanomas. Ann Surg 1970;172:902-8.

Moreno MA, Hanna EY. Management of mucosal melanomas of the head and neck: did we make any progress? Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010;18:101-6.

Sun CZ, Chen YF, Jiang YE, Hu ZD, Yang AK, Song M. Treatment and prognosis of oral mucosal melanoma. Oral Oncol 2012;48:647-52.

Gu GM, Epstein JB, Morton TH Jr. Intraoral melanoma: long-term follow-up and implication for dental clinicians. A case report and literature review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96:404-13.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Indexed In Ebscohost Index Copernicus UlrichsWebOpenJGateGoogle Scholar DOAJ Gale Cengage Learning Research Gate
line
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd