Original Research

Effect of Green Tea on Salivary Ph and Streptococcus Mutans Count in Healthy Individuals

Sangameshwar M, Vanishree M, Surekha R, Santosh Hunasgi, Anila K, Vardendra Manvikar

Abstract

Aim: Green tea is a well-known, healthy beverage and is an important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Beneficial effects of green tea include such as protection against dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss and found that can a decrease in streptococcus mutans count as well as increase in pH. Hence the present study was carried out to evaluate and compare pH of saliva before and after the intake of green tea and to evaluate the role of green tea on growth of oral bacteria in culture using saliva. Material and Methods: Unstimulated saliva was collected from 30 healthy individuals aged between 20-30 years. The pH of saliva was determined before, immediately after and 10 min after drinking green tea using pH electrode. The microbial load was assessed using nutrient agar and mitis salivarius agar by collecting saliva before and immediately after intake of green tea. Data were analysed using ANOVA followed by post hoc dunnet multiple comparison test. p<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: There was significant difference between salivary pH before, immediately after and after 10 min (p<0.0001) of intake of green tea. There was significant difference between salivary streptococcus mutans count before and after (p<0.001) intake of green tea. Conclusion: The result of the present study has proved that consumption of green tea inhibit salivary Streptococcus mutans count and cause reduction of pH in saliva. So, it could be advisable to encourage the regular consumption of this widely available, tasty and inexpensive beverage as an interesting alternative to other drinks.

 

Key Words: Green Tea; Salivary Ph; Streptococcus Mutans; Saliva; Oral; Dental Caries.

 

Sangameshwar M, Vanishree M, Surekha R, Santosh Hunasgi, Anila K, Vardendra Manvikar. Effect of Green Tea on Salivary Ph and Streptococcus Mutans Count in Healthy Individuals. International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology; 2014:5(1):13-16. ©International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Published by Publishing Division, Celesta Software Private Limited. All Rights Reserved.

 


Introduction

Green tea (Camellia sinensis) has been considered, in traditional Chinese medicine, as a healthful beverage and one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Green tea is an important source of polyphenol antioxidants. The main polyphenols in green tea are catechins and also consists of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, pigments and minerals.1,2

 

Grean tea extracts contain different phytochemicals with biological properties that promote human health and help reduce the risk of chronic disease. The antioxidant phytochemicals present are carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, nutrient phytochemicals generally classified as flavonoids. Among these, the polyphenols and catechins constitute the most interesting group of tea leaf components: epicatechin, gallocatechin, and catechins.1,2 Recent human studies suggest that green tea may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer, as well as to the promotion of oral health and other physiological functions, such as antioxidant and antibacterial activities, antihypertensive effect and body weight control.2,3

 

Beneficial effects of green tea include such as protection against dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss. Few studies stated that after green tea consumption there was significant reduction of the salivary levels of the cariogenic pathogens such as streptococcus and lactobacilli and increase in the pH levels.3-5 Hence the present study was carried out to evaluate and compare pH of saliva before and after the intake of green tea and to evaluate the role of green tea on growth of oral bacteria in culture using saliva.

 

Material and Methods

A sample comprising of 30 healthy students aged between 18-30 years who are studying in our institution were randomly selected. These students have good oral hygiene. A patient with systemic diseases was excluded from the study. A patient below 18 years and above 30 years was excluded from the study.

 

Green tea was prepared by boiling 120ml water followed by dipping of 2gm of Green tea powder sachet (2gm/120ml) for 2 minutes. Unstimulated saliva was collected into a sterile plastic disposable container before consumption, immediately after and 10 minutes after consumption of green tea. The pH of saliva was determined using Elico pH Meter (LI 120 Indian). The saliva sample collected before and after intake of green tea was inoculated in nutrient agar and mitis salivarius agar. The media plates were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Following incubation, counting of colonies was done manually. The count of streptococcus mutans was expressed as a number of colony forming units per millilitre (CFU/ml) of saliva.(Figure 1) The data was analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc dunnet multiple comparison test and P value <0.05 was considered as significant.


 

Description: Picture1

Figure 1: Evaluation of bacterial count before and after the intake of green tea (a) and streptococcus mutans (b).

 


Results

The mean, standard deviation, and p-value of all salivary pH and bacterial load levels seen in patients were calculated and compared. The pH of saliva before, immediately after and after 10 min of intake of green tea was 8.01 ± 0.24, 8.47 ± 0.25 and 8.42 ± 0.25 respectively (Table 1 and Graph1). On comparison there was significant difference between salivary pH before, immediately after and after 10 min (p<0.0001) of intake of green tea. Comparison of salivary pH between, before and immediately after intake of green tea showed a significant difference (p<0.01). Comparison of before and after 10 minutes of intake of green tea also showed a statistically significant difference. (p<0.01) The salivary streptococcus mutans count before and after intake of green tea was 79.07 ± 10.7×103 CFU/ml and 72.7 ± 9.22×103 CFU/ml (Table 2 and Graph 2). There was significant difference between salivary streptococcus mutans count before and after (p<0.001) intake of green tea.


pH Before

pH Immediately after

pH After 10 min

Standard Difference (sd) [before-immediately after]

Standard Difference (sd) [before- after 10 min]

P-value

8.01 ± 0.24

8.47 ± 0.25

8.42 ± 0.25

0.46 (0.09)

0.41 (0.11)

P<0.0001

Table 1: Comparison of pH of saliva before and after the intake of green tea

 

Streptococcus mutans count of saliva (--×103 CFU/ml)

Before

After

Mean difference

p-value

79.07 ± 10.7

72.7 ± 9.22

6.30

P<0.001

Table 2: Comparison of streptococcus mutans count before and after the intake of green tea



Discussion

In the last few years, an increased attention has been focused on the natural plant extracts, especially those containing phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Tea is one of the important dietary sources of these compound.[9,11] In recent years, there is a growing interest in green tea due to scientific findings which shows the health potentials of the beverage. Green tea polyphenols act as anticariogenic and antibacterial agents.8,9 Catechins present in green tea represent marked effect on PH value of saliva and dental plaque concern it s reduction after eating towards acidic state and preserve it within normal range. Moreover, green tea extracts usage showed enhancement in Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) due to it is high content of catechins, so, oral application of catechins posses’ positive influence on the gingival and periodontal structures concerning gingivitis and periodontitis.

 

Description: Description: D:\ijomp.org\New Submissions\00. PAYMENT RECEIVED\Paid 101. 603. OR. Effect of GreenTea-Sangamesh\Figure 3.jpg

Graph 1: Comparison of pH of saliva before and after the intake of green tea

 

In our study, there was statistically significant increase in pH of saliva after intake of green tea. The possible reason could be due to the presence of epigallocatechin gallate polyphenol in green tea which causes reduction in acid production by inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase enzyme.1,3 which probably help to decrease caries incidence when it was taken after food intake. When the microbial load was assessed, there was significant decrease in the streptococcus mutans count after intake of green tea. Decrease in the microbial count could be due to the inhibitory and bactericidal effect of catachins present in the green tea. Several workers demonstrated the antibacterial effect by a mechanism inhibiting glucosyl transferase from streptococcus mutans after intake of green tea.4,5,10-12 Our study results were similar to that obtained by Takashi (2005)12, Awadalla et al (2011),13 Chatterjee (2012)14 and Abd Allah et al., (2012).8 Awadalla et al in his study showed that there was a statistically significant difference among subjects pre- and post-rinsing with 2% green tea for 5 min concerning S. mutans count in saliva and plaque, salivary and plaque pH values and GB.13 Takashi (2005) stated that rinsing with green tea regularly exhibit reduction in plaque S. mutans levels and inhibit cellular adhesion to teeth and he concluded that these effects collectively play great part in caries prevention.12 Based on these findings, we hypothesize that green tea could have an effective anticariogenic property and thus can be used to decrease the caries incidence. For a study like this discussion is too short.

           

Description: Description: D:\ijomp.org\New Submissions\00. PAYMENT RECEIVED\Paid 101. 603. OR. Effect of GreenTea-Sangamesh\Figure 4.jpg

Graph 2: Evaluation of streptococcus mutans count before and after the intake of green tea

 

Conclusion

The results of the present study may prove that consumption of green tea inhibit salivary Streptococcus mutans count and cause increase in pH of saliva and act as an effective natural measure to combat dental caries. So, it could be advisable to encourage the regular consumption of this green tea be widely accessible, tasty and inexpensive beverage as an interesting alternative to other drinks.

 

Acknowledgement

We would like to acknowledge staff members, Department of Oral Pathology, for helping us in preparation of the manuscript.

 

Author Affiliations

1.Dr.Sangameshwar M, Post graduate student, 2.Dr.Vanishree M, Professor, 3.Dr.Surekha R, Reader, 4.Dr.Santosh Hunasgi, Professor, 5.Dr.Anila K, Senior lecturer, 6.Dr.Vardendra Manvikar, Post Graduate Student, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Navodaya Dental College, Raichur 584103, Karnataka, India.

 

References

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2.     Narotzki B, Reznick AZ, Aizenbud D, Levy Y. Green tea: A promising natural product in oral health. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:429-35.

3.     Cooper R, More D, Morre M. Medicinal benefits of green tea. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(3):521-8.

4.     Hamtion-miller JMT. Anti-cariogenic properties of tea (Camellia sinesis). J Med Microbiol. 2001;50:299-302.

5.     Tehrani MH, Asghari G, Hajiahmadi M. Comparing Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus colony count changes following green tea mouth rinse or sodium fluoride mouth rinse use in children (Randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial). Dent Res J. 2011;8:S58-63.

6.     Xin Xu, Xue D, Christine D. Tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate inhibits streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by suppressing gtf genes. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:678-83.

7.     Shafer, Hine, Levy. Textbook of Oral Pathology. 6th Ed. Elsevier; New Delhi: 2009. P 431-433.

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9.     Awadalla HI, Rgab MH, Bassuoni MW, Fayed MT, Abbas MO. Evaluation of the effect of green tea on dental caries and composite restorations. TAF Prev Med Bull. 2011;10(3):269-74.

10.  Taylor PW, Hamtion-miller JMT, Stapleton PD. Antimicrobial properties of green tea catechins. Food Sci Technol Bull. 2005;2:71-81.

11.  Eric WC, Eu YS, Yon PL. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis. Pharmacognosy Res. 2011;3:266-72.

12.  Takashi O. Anti-caries effects of tea polyphenols. Food Ingredients J. 2005;210:325-30.

13.  Awadalla HI, Ragab MH, Bassuoni MW, Fayed MT, Abbas MO. A pilot study of the role of green tea use on oral health. Int J Dent Hyg. 2011;9(2):110-6.

14.  Chatterjee A, Saluja M, Agarwal G, Alam M. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health. J Indian Soc Periodontal 2012;16:161-7.

15.  Deshpande N, Deshpande A, Mafoud S. Evaluation of intake of green tea on gingival and periodontal status: An experimental study. J Interdiscip Dentistry 2012;2:108-12.

 

Corresponding Author

Dr.Sangameshwar M,

Department of Oral Pathology,

Navodaya Dental College,

Raichur 584101, Karnataka, India.

Ph: +91 8123774790, +91 9440231243

Email: drsangameshwar@gmail.com

 


 

 

 

 

 

Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None Declared.

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