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An Evaluation of Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Need amongst people living in and around Panvel, Navi-Mumbai-A Survey

Jyoti Nadgere , Anita Gala-Doshi, Sumana Kishore


A= bstract

To promote oral health, we need to know t= heir prosthetic status and prosthetic need. Hence, a survey of prosthetic status= and need of people living in and around panvel was done. A cross-sectional study was undertaken and 678 subjects aged 13 years and above was examined (58.4% males and 41.6% females). 44.5%= were partially edentulous and 26.1% were completely edentulous and remaining were dentulous. Still eighty five percent of the subje= cts were without any prosthesis. Prosthetic status and prosthetic need are not significantly associated with gender whereas it is significantly associated with socio economic status. A high unmet need for prosthetic care existed a= mong the people living in and around Panvel, Navi-Mu= mbai surveyed.

K= eywords: Edentulism;Prosthetic need


Jyoti <= span class=3DSpellE>Nadgere , Anita Gala-Doshi, Sumana Kishore. An Evaluation of Prosthetic Status and Prosthetic Need amongst people livin= g in and around Panvel , Navi-Mumbai-A Survey. International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.2010:1(1):6-9. © 2010 International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Publishing Division, Celesta Software Private Li= mited. All Rights Reserved.

Re= ceived on: 01/09/2010  Accepted on: 20/10/2010


I= ntroduction

Oral health is always an inseparable part= of general health and awareness plays a vital role in determining the oral hea= lth of individual. Tooth loss especially, complete loss or edentulism, is equivalent to the dental death. Tooth loss often substantially reduces t= he quality of life.1 The loss of teeth i= s an end product of oral disease and reflects the attitudes of the patients, the dentists in a society, the availability and accessibility of dental care as well as the prevailing philosophies of care.2

 &nb= sp;          In order to promote the oral health, we need to know their prosthetic status a= nd prosthetic need. Hence, an effort was made to collect baseline information = to formulate policy, to plan, to monitor and evaluate oral health services.


Materials and Methods

The study was c= ross sectional and ethical clearance was obtained from the M.G.M. Dental College ethical committee. The study was conducted to determine the prosthetic status and= prosthetic need among the people living in and around Panvel, Nav= i-Mumbai, India. The inclusion criteria were being 13 years or more in age and only t= he permanent dentition was considered. Subjects had been informed of the natur= e of the investigation and had been included in the study after their consent was obtained.

The study invol= ved completion of a pre-designed and structured questionnaire containing 24 clo= se ended questions. The questionnaire was framed to collect information regard= ing the demographic profile, educational status, income, occupation etc. The questionnaire also included multiple option questions to collect information regarding their dental visits, the reason for the visits, the reasons for n= ot visiting a dentist on a routine basis, awareness towards the oral diseases.= The data regarding their oral health status was obtained through direct oral examination of the study subjects using WHO oral health assessment form (Ba= sic Oral Health Survey, 1997)3. The prosthetic status and prosthetic needs was assessed using the following criteria.

P= rosthetic status

0 – No prosthesis=

1 – Bridge

2 – More than one bridge=

3 – Partial denture

4 – Both bridge(s) and partial denture(s)

5 – Full removable denture

9 – Not recorded<= /p>

P= rosthetic need

0 – No prosthesis needed=

1 – Need for one unit prosthesis

2 - Need for multi unit prosthesis

3 - Need for combination of one-and/or mu= lti unit prosthesis

4 - Need for full prosthesis (replacement= of all teeth)

9 – Not recorded

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;   The examination was conducted by a single examiner. The examination was conduct= ed at the department of Prosthodontics  M.G.M. Dental College and Ho= spital and its peripheral centers on a dental chair with the help of autoclaved diagno= stic instruments.

 &nb= sp;         


Data obtained were subjected to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17.0. Quantitati= ve data was summarized using mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data was summarized using frequencies, percentages, and ranges. The cross-tabs and contingency co-efficient was used to compare the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to gender, education, economic factors, etc, t= he statistical significance was fixed at 0.05.

After compiling= and analyzing the data from questionnaire form, the following observations were made.

Age and Sex: The study popu= lation comprised 58.4% of males and 41.6% of females . = The age ranged between 13 years to 84 years. The mean age was 35.5 years. Table= 1 shows distribution of subjects according to different age groups.

Age group

Number of Subjects













Table 1 : Distribution of subjects according to different age groups

         Location and Literacy level: 33.5 % were fr= om urban, 40.9 % were from periurban, 25.7 % were = from rural. 86.7 % were literate of whom 38.1% had school education, 38.6% were = from college, 10% had higher education, and 13.3% were illiterate.  

Physical and mental condition: Of the 678 per= sons, 77.5%were in good physical condition, 17.5% were in fair physical condition= and 5% were in poor physical condition. Mental health could not be assessed bec= ause the medical record of each subject was not available. On interrogation 5% of these were depressed. On an average majority of them were in good physical = and mental conditioned had accepted the reality of life and were keeping a posi= tive attitude towards life.

Medical health: 45% were having systemic illness and were on regular medical treatment, 8% had some past major illness, and 20% showed frequency of minor illness, remaining had no medical problems. <= /span>

These people we= re aware of ill effects of their systemic disease.

Prostho status

Maxillary Arch

Mandibular Arch






No prosthesis





Bridge/ Crown





>one Bridge





Partial Denture





Both Bridges & Partial Denture





Full mouth Removable denture










Table 2 Maxillary and Mandibular prosthetic status

F (Frequency)

Dental status: 29.4% were dentulous, 44.5% were partial= ly edentulous and 26.1%were edentulous.

Oral hygiene status : 36 % used finger = and powder/paste, 43 %   used brush and powder/paste, 12% us= ed mishri and 9% used other aids like datun, salt etc. Majority of them had frequency of cleaning the teeth only once a = day.

Prosthetic status: = Table 2 shows t= he distribution of prosthetic status of their maxillary and mandibular arches.= 85% of the subjects had no prosthesis in their maxillary and mandibular arches = (Table2).

Prosthetic need: Table 3 shows the distribution of prosth= etic need of their maxillary and mandibular arches.  Need for multi unit prosthesis was= more in both maxillary and mandibular arches.


Prosthetic Need

Maxillary Arch

Mandibular Arch






No Need





One Unit Prosthesis





Multi-unit Prosthesis





Need For a Combination of One / Multi unit Prosthes= is





Full Prosthesis










Table 3 Shows the distribution of prosthetic need

D= iscussion

It is evident f= rom the data collected that majority of dentulous subjects i.e. within the age group of less than 23 years. Partial edentulousness was seen in all age groups, being maximum among = those aged 34-43 years. Thereafter, the percentage of partially edentulous individuals decreased as the age increased. This can be explained by the fa= ct that the condition of partial edentulousness was replaced by complete edentulousness from the age group of 33-43 years onwards, the latter increasing steadily till the age of >65 years. Similar trends have been reported in studies conducted by Angelillo et al4, Crabb5, Hobdell et al6, Liss et al7 and Varelzides et al8, Prateek et al9.

There were fewer patients in above sixty five years age groups because geria= tric patients give a lower priority to dental health. Older peop= le make extensive use of medical facilities, but they seem to underuse dental facilities.

 &nb= sp;          The study revealed that 88% of the total population surveyed did not have any prosthesis. The low proportion of those who had prosthesis may be due to the fact that  people underuse dental facilities due to lack of awareness, financial constraints.=

It = was observed that there was minimal variation between the sexes regarding the s= tatus for maxillary and mandibular arches. This is in accordance with the finding= s of Mersel et al10<= /sup> and Shroff11. Although greater proportion of= males had “Need for full prosthesis” with respect to females. = “Need for multi-unit prosthesis” was more in females compared to males. How= ever the difference in prosthodontic needs between t= he sexes was not statistically significant which is in accordance with the observati= ons of Mulay and Master.12

A significantly higher percentage of subjects in the upper socio economic categories had prosthesis of some kind, compared to those in the lower socio economic categories. The social pressure of maintaining the esthetics and function may be the driving force that influences the subjects in the upper classes to get their missing teeth replaced. In addition to this, the attit= ude and awareness towards dental care, the cost of dental treatment might also = be the significant factors that determine the prosthetic status in a person. Certainly, the attitude and awareness towards dental care was better among = the subjects in the upper socio economic categories and this was evident when t= he utilization of dental services was assessed, which was also significantly better among = the subjects in the upper classes compared to those in lower classes. The studies by Han= son B13, Eklund SA et al= 14, and Gilbert GA et al15 also found the prosthetic status to be be= tter among the subjects in the upper classes as was found in our study.

Good facilities are provided by M.G.M. Dental College and Hospital, such as camp= s to the nearby villages, free transportation, free complete denture and removab= le partial denture services. In spite of this, awareness among the patient for dental treatment seemed to be significantly low. This indicates patient education and counseling is the need of the hour to increase awareness of dental treatment.


   &nb= sp;       The findings of= this study clearly demonstrate a high unmet need for prosthetic care among the population surveyed.

        =    To improve the oral health status, it is necessary to provide oral health education & importance of prosthetic treatment. Centers for free dental treatment should be set up for those who need prosthetic treatment b= ut cannot afford the treatment.

        =     Although extended results have been achieved, yet the small sample s= ize hinders the generalization of the results to the general population. Hence, further studies are needed at a large scale to collect the baseline oral he= alth data & to plan prosthetic services for people.

Authors Affiliations: <= span style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>

1.     Jyoti Nadgere , Professor and Head of the Department<= o:p>

2.     Anita Gala-Do= shi, Senior Lecturer

3.     Sumana Kishore, Lectu= rer, Department of Prosthodontics, M.G.M. Dental College And Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai=

Acknowledgement: To all Staff members of Department of Prosthodontics, M.G.M. Dental College And Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, India.


1.     Slade GD and Spencer AJ. Social im= pact of oral conditions among older adults. Aust Den= t J 1994; 39: 358-364.

2.     Burt BA and E= klund SA. Tooth loss. Dentistry, Dental Practice and the Community. W.B.Saunder Company. Philadelphia. 5th edi= tion: 203-211.

3.     World Health Organization, Oral Health Surveys—Basic Methods, W= orld Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 4th edition, 1997.

4.     Angelillo IF, Sagliocco G, Hendricks SJH, Villari P. Tooth loss and dental caries in institutionalized elderly in Italy. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiol = Aug 1990; 18(4) : 216-218.

5.     Crabb HSM. Tooth mortality in selected population. Br Dent J, Dec 1996; 121 : 553-560.

6.     Hobdell<= /span> MH, Sheiham A, Slack GL. Patterns of tooth loss= in British populations. Br. Dent J; 1969 April; 15 : 349-351.

7.     Liss J, Evenson P, Loewy S, Ayer WA. Changes in the prevalence of dental disease. Bureau of Economic and B= ehavioural Research, Council on Dental Health and Health Planning. J Am Dent Assoc 1982 July; 105(1): 75-79.

8.     Varelzides A, Komboli M, Tsami= A, Mitsis P. Pattern of teeth loss in a selected populat= ion in Greece. Comm Dent Oral Epi= demiol 1986; 14: 349-352.

9.     Prateek<= /span> S, Kashyap B, Pankaj G, Renuka S. Edentulousness = and prosthetic needs of a rural population in southern India. J of Indian Prosth. Soc, March 2001; 1(1): 20-24.

10.   Mersel A, a NAISE JZ, Shem Tov A. Prosthetic needs and demands for services of a g= roup of elderly people in Isrel. Comm Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1984;1= 2:315-318.

11.   Shroff BC. Edentulousness in India. Ind Dent Assoc. National Workshop on “Oral health go= al”June 1984; 17-20, Bombay.

12.   Mulay VB , Master SB. The prostho= dontic needs of the Indian population . J IN=

13.   Hanson BS, Li= edbetg B and Owall B. Social network, social support a= nd dental status in elderly Swedish men. Community dentistry and oral epidemio= logy 1994; 54:331-337.

14.   Eklund SA and Burt BA. Risk factors for tooth loss in the United States. Longitudi= nal analysis of National data. J Public Health Dent 1994; 54:5-14.

15.   Gilbert GH, Duncan RP, Crandall LA. Attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of = older Floridians with tooth loss. Community Dent Oral Epidem= iol 1993;21:384-389.


Address of correspondence


Dr Jyoti Nadger= e , MDS,

Professor and H= ead of the department,

Department of Prosthodontics,

M.G.M. Dental College and Hospital, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai,India.

<= o:p> 







Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of interest: No= ne Declared

<= o:p> 

<= o:p> 

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An Evaluation of Prosthetic Status …………8<= /span>

International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.2010:1(1):1-5.

Available at http://www.journalgateway.com

International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.2010:1(1):6-9.

Available at http://www.journalgateway.com

© 2010 International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Publishing Division, Celesta Software Private Limited. All Rights Reserved.=

9      Jyoti Nadgere et al

 = ;


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