Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12 and 15 year old school going children of Udaipur city, India
Background: Fluoride at optimal level decreases the incidence of dental caries and is also necessary for maintaining the integrity of oral tissues but at the same time when taken in excess during developmental stages can cause adverse effects like dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. Aim: To know the prevalence and degree of dental fluorosis in 12 and 15 years old school going children of Udaipur city, India. Methods: A total of 1042 children participated in the study. The sample was divided into 2 groups; Group A, who were using borewater for drinking at home and at school and Group B where the children, used municipal water supply for drinking both at home and at school. The data regarding the fluoride content of borewell water of Udaipur city was collected from the office of wells of India, Udaipur. A survey proforma was prepared based on the World Health organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). Karl-Pearson coefficient for correlation and simple regression analysis was used to measure the correlation between fluoride concentration in drinking water and community fluorosis index (CFI). Chi-square test was used to evaluate the association between fluoride levels in drinking water and severity of dental fluorosis. Results: A linear relationship was observed between the CFI values of 12 and 15 years old children and fluoride concentration in water (r=0.98). The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12 and 15 year old school going children of Udaipur city was found to be 29.07%. A significantly high prevalence of dental fluorosis in Group A (43.99%) was observed as compared to Group B (17.01%) [p<0.05]. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration in Bore water of all 4 Zones was considerably high as compared to Municipal water. There was an increase in severity of dental fluorosis as the fluoride concentration increased in the drinking water. Hence dental fluorosis is considered as a major dental public health problem in Udaipur city and is related to the high fluoride concentration present in the groundwater.
Keywords: Dental fluorosis; Borewell water; Municipal water; Fluoride.
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